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Why does the flu vaccine have to be updated every year?

Infectious Diseases Vaccines

Three reasons: 1. Influenza viruses mutate over time, 2. the virus strains circulating can vary year to year, and 3. our immunity wanes over time. That’s why the flu vaccine formula needs to be updated yearly, and we need to get a flu shot each season to be well-protected. Influenza viruses have proteins on their surface: hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Read more…

Nerdy Girls Live 11/17/23

Vaccines Videos

Those Nerdy Girls answer your questions about fall vaccines for COVID-19, flu, and RSV. Hosted by: – Ashley Ritter, APRN, PhD: TNG Founding Member & Contributing Writer – Chana Davis, PhD: TNG Contributing Writer & Founder of Fueled by Science ➡️ Welcome and Intros (0:00-0:59) ➡️ Who needs an RSV vaccine and why? What is Read more…

How long do flu shots last?

Infectious Diseases Vaccines

In general, you can count on 6 months of meaningful protection starting two weeks after you get your annual flu vaccine. Protection may wane earlier in older adults. Getting vaccinated in advance of flu season’s start ensures that you have good coverage when the season begins, and in most adults, your protection will stick around Read more…

Does the Novavax COVID-19 cause fewer side effects?


The Novavax COVID-19 vaccine (Nuvaxovid) causes slightly fewer side effects on average, but the difference is modest at best. People who get the Novavax shot are somewhat less likely to report symptoms at the injection site (e.g. soreness) or throughout the body (e.g. fatigue). Mild to moderate side effects are still very common with Novavax. Read more…

Do flu vaccines work?

Infectious Diseases Vaccines

Yes. Annual flu vaccines prevent hundreds of thousands of cases of flu and save thousands of lives every year. The answer to the question “how well do they work” isn’t black and white because it changes from year to year, and even sometimes within a season. But even in a year when the flu vaccine Read more…

Yes, everyone should get the updated Covid vaccine.


For better viewing with links, read this on our Substack. —————————————————————— Last month, the CDC recommended that everyone in the U.S. 6 months and older receive an updated Covid vaccine targeting the XBB.1.5 variant. Since then, some notable voices, including Paul Offit, have publicly questioned whether the updated vaccine is needed for those who are not in a Read more…