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What do we know about the COVID-19 vaccines in people who are immunosuppressed?

Biology/Immunity Vaccines

A. While data on the relative effectiveness in these groups is still limited, COVID-19 vaccines are safe for immunosuppressed people and help protect against severe COVID-19 disease. TL;DR: ➡️ None of the vaccines contain live virus and cannot cause infection. ➡️ Even if immune response is lower in the immunosuppressed, the vaccine will induce some Read more…

Do I need the vaccine if I’ve already been infected with COVID-19?

Biology/Immunity Vaccines

Q: Do I need the vaccine if I’ve already been infected with COVID-19? Isn’t natural immunity better? A: Vaccines produce STRONGER and MORE CONSISTENT antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 than natural infection, meaning EVERYONE can benefit from the protection. 💥 Don’t give away your shot! As more people become eligible for the COVID-19, we’ve heard some Read more…

When we need a booster for the new variants, will we need to have the same company’s vaccine as our first?

Biology/Immunity Vaccines

A: If booster shots or vaccines adapted to new variants of the SARS-CoV-2 virus become necessary, it is likely they will be able to be used by those originally vaccinated with a different type of vaccine. This strategy might even have added benefits! While it is currently not recommended that we mix and match COVID-19 Read more…

What is the difference between antibodies from vaccination and antibodies from having had COVID-19?

Biology/Immunity Vaccines

Q: Is there a difference between the antibodies you develop from the vaccination and the antibodies you develop from having Covid19? Is there a reason that antibody tests aren’t a good indicator of whether the vaccine was effective for you. A: Antibodies developed from having from COVID-19 recognize different parts of the virus while antibodies Read more…

Is there a timeline for vaccinations for children? Do the “herd immunity” projections include children?

Biology/Immunity Families/Kids Vaccines

A: Trials for children 12+ are currently in progress for both the Moderna (ages 12-17; still enrolling!) and Pfizer (ages 12-15; done enrolling!) vaccines with the most optimistic timeline for vaccine approval in kids 12+ by the start of the 2021 school year. Children will need to be vaccinated for us to achieve herd immunity, Read more…

What new information do we have about the B.1.1.7 variant?

Biology/Immunity Infection and Spread Vaccines

A: This is an evolving situation. Actions today could result in great success or tragic loss. Key take aways— B.1.1.7 is in the US. Growing evidence suggests the B.1.1.7 variant spreads more easily than previous variants. New evidence supports the hypothesis that current vaccines are effective against B.1.1.7. Early efforts to contain B.1.1.7 buys time Read more…

Can COVID-19 cause erectile dysfunction (ED)?

Biology/Immunity Clinical Symptoms

A: It’s possible. #MaskUptoGetItUp TL;DR: Due to its impact on inflammation and the vascular system, it is biologically plausible that COVID-19 contributes to erectile dysfunction. But as with much COVID-19 research more, ahem, hard data is needed. This eyebrow raising headline made the rounds recently based on comments during a television interview by Dr. Dena Read more…

Dear Pandemic COVID Q&A

Biology/Immunity Clinical Symptoms Infection and Spread Staying Safe Uncertainty and Misinformation Videos

Drs. Lindsey Leininger and Malia Jones take your thorny COVID questions in this Live Q&A! If you have a question, submit it at our website! www.dearpandemic.org. This week we discuss: ➡️ Intro…with TV show rec’s! (0:00 – 3:00) Related link ➡️ The latest on quarantine timelines (3:35 – 8:40) Related link ➡️ Handling conspiracy theories Read more…

If I already recovered from Covid-19 infection, can I be sure I won’t get it again or pass it to others?

Biology/Immunity Infection and Spread

A: No. Evidence on the longevity and strength of the immune system response to SARS-CoV-2 remains inconclusive. Previous infection does not give you an “immunity passport”. All individuals should continue to follow SMART precautions, particularly during the holiday season. Here is what we know to date. Antibody testing alone is an insufficient measure of immunity. Read more…

Is it true that some people already have antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 from previous exposure to seasonal coronaviruses?


A: Maybe; there *is* evidence of antibodies to seasonal coronaviruses reacting to some parts of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. BUT so far there is no solid evidence that these antibodies protect from COVID-19 infection or disease. What does it mean to have “cross-reactive” antibodies? There are four “common” or seasonal human coronaviruses which are one cause Read more…